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Anti-racism Resources

This guide explores the causes and impacts of racism and how to be anti-racist.

Bibliography (2019, April 16). Systemic racism explained [Video]. YouTube. (2020, July 1). Understanding the racist roots of police violence [Video]. YouTube.

Adams, L. (2016, December 5). Central Park was once Seneca Village, home to a thriving free Black Community. Atlas Obscura.

Adams, M., Bell, L. A., & Griffin, P. (1997). Teaching for diversity and social justice: A sourcebook. Routledge.

A different Asian American timeline. (n.d.). ChangeLab.

AJ+. (2017, October 8). Why do we call Asian Americans the model minority? [Video]. YouTube.

AJ+. (2021, March 25). The roots of Anti-Asian racism [Video]. YouTube.

American Experience, PBS. (2018a, May 8). United States v. Wong Kim Ark | The Chinese Exclusion Act [Video]. YouTube.

American Experience, PBS. (2018b, May 29). What was the impact of the Chinese Exclusion Act? | The Chinese Exclusion Act [Video]. YouTube.

AmericanForum. (2015, April 2). Was 1960’s urban renewal “Negro Removal”? YouTube.

Anti Chinese race riot. (2020, November 4). [Video]. PBS.Org.

Ariel, C. (2020, May 29). For our white friends desiring to be allies. Sojourners.

Arizona State University. (2017, May 31). Asian American 101: “Positive” stereotypes cause harm: Arizona State University (ASU) [Video]. YouTube.

AsapScience. (2018, November 12). The science of racism | Creators for Change [Video]. YouTube.

Asare, J. G. (2022, April 14). What is fetishization and how does it contribute to racism? Forbes.

Asare, M. (2017, April 14). Debunking the myth of color blindness in a racist society –. The Bowdoin Orient.

Ball, C. (2012, October 4). Tokenism, racial stereotypes & why we need more directors of color. MadameNoire.

Barndt, J. R. (1991). Dismantling racism: The continuing challenge to white America. Augsburg.

Berry, D. R. (2018, February 3). Opinion | Beyond the slave trade, the cadaver trade. The New York Times.

Big Think. (2016, May 7). US Anti-Drug laws aren’t scientific — They’re colonialist and racist | Big Think [Video]. YouTube.

Born in Slavery: Slave narratives from the Federal Writers’ Project, 1936 to 1938. (n.d.). The Library of Congress Digital Collections.

Boston Medical Center. (2020, April 27). COVID-19 and racism: Changing predictable outcomes | HealthCity [Video]. YouTube.

Bouie, J., & Onion, R. (Host). (2019, October 10). The history of American slavery (Audio podcast). Slate Magazine.

Britannica, T. Editors of Encyclopaedia (2019, August 20). black code. Encyclopedia Britannica.

Britannica, T. Editors of Encyclopaedia (2021, October 18). Japanese American internmentEncyclopedia Britannica.

Brown, D. (2017, May 16). ‘You’ve got bad blood’: The horror of the Tuskegee syphilis experiment. The Washington Post.

Brownlee, D. (2019, October 18). The dangers of mistaking diversity for inclusion in the workplace. Forbes.

BuzzFeed. (2016, November 27). The largest lynching in US history [Video]. YouTube.

Byrne, C. (2021, August 23). The BMI is racist and Useless. Here’s how to measure health instead. HuffPost UK.

Cabison, R., & Chan, T. (2021, March 17). What you can do about Anti-Asian violence: ‘We are part of this country,’ activists say. Rolling Stone.

Carolina Asia Center presents: “Yellow Peril” and Anti-Asian prejudice in the shadow of Coronavirus. (2020, May 19). [Video]. Vimeo.

CBS News. (2020, March 2). Racial profiling 2.0 | Full documentary [Video]. YouTube.

Chang, Maggie, "Made in the USA: Rewriting Images of the Asian Fetish" (2006). Undergraduate Humanities Forum 2005-6: Word & Image. 6.

Chescaleigh. (2014, November 22). 5 tips for being an ally [Video]. YouTube.

Coates, R. D. (2011). Covert racism: Theories, institutions, and experiences. Leiden: Brill.

Coates, T. (2014, June). The case for reparations. The Atlantic.

Cohen, A. (2015, August 12). How white users made heroin a public-health problem. The Atlantic.

Coleman, A. (2016). Theology, Race and Libraries.
Collins, S. (n.d.). LibGuides: Anti-Oppression: Anti-Racism. Retrieved May 9, 2022, from

Corsini, R. (2002;2016;2001;). The dictionary of psychology. Routledge.

Dear Asian Youth. (2020, August 5). Discrimination against Asian Americans in history [Video]. YouTube.

Debunking the model minority myth. (n.d.). USC Pacific Asia Museum.

Devine, P. G., & Elliot, A. J. (1995). Are racial stereotypes really fading? The Princeton trilogy revisited. Personality and Social Psychology Bulletin, 21(11), 1139–1150.
DiAngelo, R. J. (2016). What does it mean to be white? Developing white racial literacy (Revised edition). Peter Lang.

Do, A. (2021, March 16). Study shows rise in anti-Asian attacks during COVID-19. Los Angeles Times.

Douglas, L. (2017, June 26). African Americans have lost untold acres of land over the last century. The Nation.

Duma, N. (2018, December 13). “This Diversity Is Not Real”: How to tell if your program’s diversity is a hologram. Op-Med.,of%20diversity%20in%20an%20institution.&text=The%20problem%20with%20tokenism%20is,inclusion%20policies%20of%20the%20institution

Elias, S. (2015). Racism, overt. The Wiley Blackwell Encyclopedia of Race, Ethnicity, and Nationalism, 1–3.

Elliott, M., & Hughes, J. (2021, November 9). A brief history of slavery that you didn’t learn in school. The New York Times.

Eminent Domain. (n.d.). LII / Legal Information Institute.

Emmanuel, A. (2016, April 10). 10 common expressions that are actually racist as hell. ATTN:.

Equal Justice Initiative. (2015, July 7). Slavery to Mass Incarceration [Video]. YouTube.

Eschner, K. (2017, December 19). This American doctor pioneered abdominal surgery by operating on enslaved women. Smithsonian Magazine.

Evans, A., Chun, E., & Cmaadmin (EDU). (2008, March 3). Demythologizing diversity in higher education. Diverse: Issues In Higher Education.

“Everyday Racism in America”: Watch MSNBC’s full town hall. (2021, May 27). [Video]. MSNBC.

Fitchburgh State University Amelia V. Gallucci-Cirio Library. (2021, November 2). Research help: Anti-racism resources: Historical roots of american racism. Anti-Racism Resources.

Fleetwood, N. R. (2020, August 7). Racist police practices like mug shots normalize the criminalization of Black Americans. NBC News.

Foderaro, L. W. (2013, February 7). Unearthing an African-American village displaced by Central Park. The New York Times.

Ford, T., Reber, S., & Reeves, R. (2022, March 9). Race gaps in COVID-19 deaths are even bigger than they appear. Brookings.

Fullilove, M. T., & Wallace, R. (2011). Serial forced displacement in American cities, 1916-2010. Journal of urban health : bulletin of the New York Academy of Medicine88(3), 381–389.

Gal, S., Kiersz, A., Mark, M., Su, R., & Ward, M. (2020, July 8). 26 simple charts to show friends and family who aren’t convinced racism is still a problem in America. Business Insider Nederland.

GBH Forum Network. (2019, March 6). A study in medical and scientific racism in America [Video]. YouTube.

Gee, G. C., & Ford, C. L. (2011). Structural racism and health inequities: Old Issues, New Directions. Du Bois review : social science research on race8(1), 115–132.

Godfrey, B., & Soper, S. (2018, May 22). Prison records from 1800s Georgia show mass incarceration’s racially charged beginnings. The Conversation.

Gordon, K. (2019, July 23). Multiculturalism is better than colorblindness. Camp Kupugani.

Graham, V. (2015, June 3). Urban Renewal. . .Means Negro Removal. ~ James Baldwin (1963) [Video]. YouTube.

Gramlich, J. (2021, August 18). America’s incarceration rate falls to lowest level since 1995. Pew Research Center.

Gross, T. (2017, May 3). A “Forgotten History” of how the U.S. government segregated America. NPR.

Handler, J., & Lovejoy, H. (n.d.). Slavery Images: A visual record of the African slave trade and slave life in the early African diaspora. Slavery Images.

Hannah-Jones, N. (2021, November 9). America wasn’t a democracy, until black Americans made it one. The New York Times.

Hannah-Jones, N. (Host). (2020, June 10). 1619 [Audio podcast]. The New York Times.

Harris, T. W. (2017, January 27). The real work of being an ally. The Cut.

Harris-Taylor, M. (2017, November 17). From overt to covert racism - How professional black women still suffer from a lingering legacy of bias [Video]. Ideastream Public Media.

Health equity considerations and racial and ethnic minority groups. (2022, January 25). Centers for Disease Control and Prevention.

History. (2019, February 7). Life aboard a slave ship | History [Video]. YouTube.

Harris, A. M. (2017, January 10). Mandatory minimum sentencing. Bloomberg.

Harris, D. (2020, January 21). Racial profiling: Past, present, and future? American Bar Association.

Hartman, T., Hart, S., Marte, J., & Schneider, H. (2020, July 16). The Race Gap: How U.S. systemic racism plays out in Black lives. Reuters.

Hawkins, B. D. (2017, April 5). Relatives of the men who endured the syphilis study speak out. NBC News.

HBS Working Knowledge. (2014, August 18). The case against racial color blindness in the workplace. Forbes.

Henry, F., & Tator, C. (2006). Racial profiling in canada: Challenging the myth of 'A few bad apples'. University of Toronto Press.

History. (2017, October 10). Japanese-American Internment During WWII [Video]. YouTube.

Ho, V. (2021, March 17). Asian Americans reported 3,800 hate-related incidents during the pandemic, report finds. The Guardian.

Hoffman, K. M., Trawalter, S., Axt, J. R., & Oliver, M. N. (2016). Racial bias in pain assessment and treatment recommendations, and false beliefs about biological differences between blacks and whites. Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences, 113(16), 4296–4301.

Hoppe, T. (2018). “Spanish Flu”: When infectious disease names blur origins and stigmatize those infected. American Journal of Public Health, 108(11), 1462–1464.

How to tell the difference between real solidarity and ‘Ally theater.’ (2017, February 16). Black Girl Dangerous.

Howard, J. (2020, December 18). Racism contributes to Covid-19’s “double whammy” impact on the Black community, Fauci says. CNN.

Hoyt, C. (2012). The Pedagogy of the Meaning of Racism: Reconciling a Discordant Discourse. Social Work, 57(3), 225–234.

HuffPost. (2015, September 1). “Reverse Racism” is a giant lie – here’s why [Video]. YouTube.

iHeart Media. (2015, November 3). Stereotypology: Submissive China dolls [Video]. YouTube.

Illing, S. (2020, March 4). Coronavirus: why pandemics activate xenophobia. Vox.

International Labor Office. (2001). International Migration, Racism, Discrimination and Xenophobia.

Irving, D. (2016, July 20). Living with racial battle fatigue. Literary Hub.

Isoymilk. (2020, June 5). DELETE YOUR BLACK SQUARES! | A lesson on performative allyship [Video]. YouTube.

Jezebel. (2020, February 22). Turn performative wokeness into allyship. YouTube.

Jilani, Z. (2021, March 18). Why are Asian Americans being attacked and what can you do about it? Greater Good Magazine.

Johnson. (2020, June 18). Language is a telling clue to unacknowledged racial attitudes. The Economist.

Kahn, A., & Bouie, J. (2021, September 16). The Atlantic slave trade in two minutes (Interactive map & timeline). Slate Magazine.

Kahn, A., & Kirk, C. (2015, August 10). There’s blatant inequality at nearly every phase of the criminal justice system. Business Insider.

Kain, E. (2011, October 27). The war on drugs is a war on minorities and the poor. Forbes.

Kann, D. (2019, April 21). America still locks up more people than anywhere else in the world. CNN.

Kenny, S. (2015, June 11). How black slaves were routinely sold as ‘specimens’ to ambitious white doctors. The Conversation.

King, N. (2020, July 1). What systemic racism means and the way it harms communities [Radio broadcast transcript]. NPR.

Kolitz, D., & Ismail, A. (2015, December 16). The lingering effects of NYC’s racist city planning. Hopes&Fears.

Kwong, E., Demby, G., & Ramirez, R. (2021, March 18). The U.S. has a history of linking disease with race and ethnicity [Audio broadcast transcript]. NPR.

Lamont, A. (n.d.). The guide to allyship. The Guide to Allyship.

Late Night with Seth Meyers. (2019, August 13). George Takei was sent to a Japanese-American internment camp at age five [Video]. YouTube.

L.A. Times. (2020, April 27). An epidemic of hate: anti-Asian hate crimes amid coronavirus [Video]. YouTube.

Learn Liberty. (2020, June 3). Racial inequality in the criminal justice system [Video]. YouTube.

Lepore, J. (2020, July 13). The invention of the police. The New Yorker.

Lewan, T., & Barclay, D. (2001, December 2). When they steal your land, they steal your future. Los Angeles Times.

Limbong, A. (2020, June 8). Microaggressions are a big deal: How to talk them out and when to walk away. NPR.

Liu, A. (2020, August 13). No, you’re not imagining it: 3 ways racial microaggressions sneak into our lives. Everyday Feminism.

Liu, J. (2021, March 18). How to take action against anti-Asian racism at work and in your personal life. CNBC.

Lockhart, P. R. (2018, August 1). Race, police, and the dangers of #LivingWhileBlack. Vox.

Lockwood, B. (2020, June 16). The history of redlining. ThoughtCo.

Lopez, G. (2017, November 17). Report: black men get longer sentences for the same federal crime as white men. Vox.

Lu, C. (2013, June 3). Why Yellow Fever is different than “Having a type.” The Bold Italic.

Manke, K. (2020, March 4). Historian uncovers gynecology’s brutal roots in slavery. Berkeley News.

Marketing Communications: Web // University of Notre Dame. (2022). Overcoming racial stereotypes // university counseling center // university of notre dame. University Counseling Center.

Martin, M. (2020, June 13). The history of policing and race in the U.S. are deeply intertwined [Audio broadcast transcript]. NPR.

McVean, A. (2019, January 25). 40 years of human experimentation in America: The Tuskegee study. Office for Science and Society.

McWhorter, J. (2020, June 22). The Dictionary Definition of “Racism” Has to Change. The Atlantic.

Merelli, A. (2019, October 16). Colorism influences probability of going to jail, new study finds. Quartz.

Merriam-Webster. (n.d.). Redline. In dictionary.

MIC. (2018, August 5). What #AllLivesMatter really means [Video]. Facebook.

Microassaults, microinsults, and microinvalidations. (2022, May 17). PBS LearningMedia.

Middleton, S. (2020). Repressive legislation: Slave codes, northern black laws, and southern black codes. Oxford Research Encyclopedia of American History.

Model minority stereotype. (n.d.). The University of Texas at Austin Counseling and Mental Health Center.

Moon, K. (2021, March 18). Donating, volunteering, reporting hate incidents: Here’s how to help combat Anti-Asian violence. Time.

Moravec, E. R. (2019, September 10). Do algorithms have a place in policing? The Atlantic.

Morillo, A. (2020, June 5). Covert acts of racism have been happening in grocery stores and restaurants forever. Delish.

MTV Impact. (2016a, May 25). The weird history of Asian sex stereotypes | Decoded | MTV News [Video]. YouTube.

MTV Impact. (2016b, June 8). Why color blindness will NOT end racism | decoded | MTV news [Video]. YouTube.

Museum of Chinese in America. (2021, March 17). REMEMBER. RECORD. RESPECT: History of anti-AAPI violence and discrimination [Video]. YouTube.

Netflix. (2020, April 17). 13TH | FULL FEATURE | Netflix [Video]. YouTube.

Newkirk, V. R., II. (2021, July 13). The terrible toll of the Tuskegee study. The Atlantic.

Nguyen, V. T. (2020, June 27). How the model minority myth of Asian Americans hurts us all. Time.

Nigatu, H. (2020, August 14). 21 racial microaggressions you hear on a daily basis. BuzzFeed.

Nittle, N. (2020, December 21). The black codes and why they still matter. ThoughtCo.

Noman, N. (2020, June 6). “Blackout Tuesday” on Instagram was a teachable moment for allies like me. NBC News.

North, A. (2020, June 6). Police brutality: A historian explains how racist policing took over US cities. Vox.

NowThis News. (2020a, May 17). Diary reveals reality of living in a WWII Japanese internment camp | NowThis [Video]. YouTube.

NowThis News. (2020b, July 20). How Asian Americans can help fight Anti-Black racism | NowThis [Video]. YouTube.

O’Neill, C. (2020, September 16). The “Othering” of disease: Xenophobia during past pandemics. John Wiley & Sons, Inc.

Oppel, R. A., Jr, Gebeloff, R., Lai, R. K. K., Wright, W., & Smith, M. (2020, July 10). The Fullest Look Yet at the Racial Inequity of Coronavirus. The New York Times.

Oxford. (2022). Tokenism. In Lexico.

Park, P. (2014, July 30). Tracing the history of the “Asian Woman Fetish.” Bitch Media.

Participant. (2016, October 31). ASIAN | How you see me [Video]. YouTube.

PBS NewsHour. (2016, April 5). Is there a racial ‘care gap’ in medical treatment? [Video]. YouTube.

PBS NewsHour. (2018, April 18). Why are black mothers and infants far more likely to die in U.S. from pregnancy-related causes? [Video]. YouTube.

PBS NewsHour. (2020, April 2). COVID-19 may not discriminate based on race -- but U.S. health care does [Video]. YouTube.

PBS NewsHour. (2021, March 4). LIVE Q&A: How to address the surge of anti-Asian hate crimes [Video]. YouTube.

PBS NewsHour Student Reporting Labs. (2020, January 7). Racial stereotypes: What people get wrong about me #NoLabels [Video]. YouTube.

Pearce, K. (2017, December 18). Lab report: Mapping the displacement from “Urban Renewal.” Bloomberg.,Inequality%20packed%20with%20interactive%20maps

PeerNetBC. (2021, September 22). Allyship. THE ANTI-OPPRESSION NETWORK.

PeerNetBC. (2020, October 16). Workshop themes.,based%20on%20relationships%20and%20accountability.

Philimon, W. (2020, June 7). Not just George Floyd: Police departments have 400-year history of racism. USA TODAY.

Phillips, H. (2021, December 14). Performative allyship is deadly (and what to do instead). Forge.,that%20actively%20harms%20that%20group.

Pierce, C. P. (2019, August 14). So much of our national history is lost to guilty amnesia. Esquire.

Porterfield, C. (2020, June 11). Here’s why critics say Trump’s Juneteenth rally in tulsa is ‘Overt racism.’ Forbes.

Presser, L. (2019, July 15). Their family bought land one generation after slavery. The Reels brothers spent eight years in jail for refusing to leave it. ProPublica.

Prete, N. (2015, December 10). Tokenism [Video]. YouTube.

Private property. (2022, May 9). In Wikipedia.


Racism defined. (n.d.). DRworksBook. Retrieved May 9, 2022, from

Ramsey, F. (2015, September 30). What if white people had to deal with racist microaggressions? Everyday Feminism.

Ramirez, R. (2021, March 19). The history of fetishizing Asian women in Orientalist tropes. Vox.

ReasonTV. (2011, September 28). The tragedy of urban renewal: The destruction and survival of a New York City neighborhood [Video]. YouTube.

Reconstruction: The black codes. (2021, March 3). PBS LearningMedia.

redlining | discrimination. (n.d.). Encyclopedia Britannica.

Ruane, M. (2019, April 30). A brief history of the enduring phony science that perpetuates white supremacy. The Washington Post.

Sanusi, T. (2020, June 25). What is fetishizing? Here’s why this racist behavior isn’t OK. Elite Daily.

Saunders, G. B. (2020, January 20). The real cost of being the POC “in the room” required to shut down obviously racist products. Colorlines.

Secrets of the Dead PBS. (2019, November 23). Before Central Park there was Seneca Village [Video]. YouTube.

Sentencing 101. (2018, April 11). FAMM.

Shah, K., & Adolphe, J. (2022, February 25). 400 years since slavery: a timeline of American history. The Guardian.

Shah, S. (2020, March 7). The pandemic of xenophobia and scapegoating. Time.

Shearer, L. (2020, February 22). Linnentown: Just one of many black communities erased by Urban Renewal. Athens Banner-Herald.

Simek, P. (2016, March 18). The racist legacy of America’s inner-city highways. D Magazine.

Spanish Grammar Articles and Lessons. SpanishDict,

Staples, B. (2019, November 29). Opinion | The death of the Black Utopia. The New York Times.

Stafford, Z. (2017, June 1). When you say you “don’t see race”, you’re ignoring racism, not helping to solve it. The Guardian.

Stereotype threat, tokenism, and implicit racism. (n.d.). Wittenberg and the Struggle for Diversity.

Stevenson, B. (2019, August 14). Why American prisons owe their cruelty to slavery. The New York Times.

Stewart, E. (2020, June 2). How to be a good white ally during the George Floyd protests and always. Vox.

Strochlic, N. (2020, September 2). America’s long history of scapegoating its Asian citizens. National Geographic.

Sue, D. W., Capodilupo, C. M., Torino, G. C., Bucceri, J. M., Holder, A. M. B., Nadal, K. L., & Esquilin, M. (2007). Racial microaggressions in everyday life: Implications for clinical practice. American Psychologist, 62(4), 271–286.

Teacup Media. (2014, July 26). The Chinese Exclusion Act of 1882 | Ep. 44 [Video]. YouTube.

TED. (2016, March 4). The problem with race-based medicine | Dorothy Roberts [Video]. YouTube.

TED. (2019, June 26). How to deconstruct racism, one headline at a time | Baratunde Thurston [Video]. YouTube.

TEDx Talks. (2014a, March 11). Building true allies: Nikki Silvestri at TEDxManhattan. YouTube.

TEDx Talks. (2014b, October 8). How racial profiling hurts everyone, including the police | Jamil Jivani | TEDxToronto [Video]. YouTube.

TEDx Talks. (2016a, March 21). Let’s get to the root of racial injustice | Megan Ming Francis | TEDxRainier [Video]. YouTube.

TEDx Talks. (2016b, April 29). I am not your Asian stereotype | Canwen Xu | TEDxBoise [Video]. YouTube.

TEDx Talks. (2017, November 28). Mapping police violence | Samuel Sinyangwe | TEDxBrookings [Video]. YouTube.

TEDx Talks. (2018a, February 23). Asian Misrepresentation in Media | Peter Westacott | TEDxIthacaCollege [Video]. YouTube.

TEDx Talks. (2018b, June 5). Henrietta Lacks: Preserving her legacy | David Lacks & Veronica Robinson | TEDxFoggyBottom [Video]. YouTube.

TEDx Talks. (2018c, July 6). The exceptional negro: Fighting to be seen in a colorblind world | traci ellis | TEDxHarperCollege [Video]. YouTube.

TEDx Talks. (2018d, December 20). Screaming in the silence: How to be an ally, not a savior | Graciela Mohamedi | TEDxBeaconStreet [Video]. YouTube.

TEDx Talks. (2019, May 3). Why microaggressions aren’t so micro | Whitney Grinnage-Cassidy | TEDxYouth@UrsulineAcademy [Video]. YouTube.

TEDxTalks. “What Being Hispanic and Latinx Means in the United States | Fernanda Ponce | Tedxdeerfield.” YouTube, YouTube, 10 Apr. 2017,

Telusma, B. (2018, May 17). Dear white people: Here’s how to be a REAL ally instead of just playing one on social media. The Grio.

The Atlantic. (2019, September 12). How Black Americans were robbed of their land [Video]. YouTube.

The Central Park Conservancy. (2022, February 9). Before Central Park: The story of Seneca Village. Central Park Conservancy.

The New York Times. (2014, March 23). Racial microaggressions: Comments that sting | the new york times [Video]. YouTube.

The New York Times. (2015, March 18). A conversation with my black son | Op-Docs | The New York Times [Video]. YouTube.

The New York Times. (2020, March 17). How Coronavirus racism infected my high school | NYT Opinion [Video]. YouTube.

The Root. (2020, March 19). Coronavirus and the Racist History of Pandemics [Video]. YouTube.

The Take. (2020, August 22). The model minority trope, explained [Video]. YouTube.

Thorpe, J. R. (2017, September 21). The history of gynecology is racist, sexist, & just plain scary. Bustle.

Turner, K., & Machado, J. (2019, August 22). The 1619 anniversary: 5 things people still get wrong about slavery. Vox.

Tuskegee Study and Health Benefit Program. (2021, April 22). Center for Disease Control and Prevention.

Tuskegee Study - Timeline. (2021, April 22). Centers for Disease Control and Prevention.

Understanding Racial Terms and Differences | Office of Equity, Diversity and Inclusion. (n.d.). Retrieved May 9, 2022, from 

University of North Carolina at Chapel Hill. (n.d.). North American slave narratives. Documenting the American South.

Various. (2022). Black Codes Restrict Newly Won Freedom. SHEC: Resources for Teachers.

Vedantam, S. (2016, February 16). Remembering Anarcha, Lucy, and Betsey: The mothers of modern gynecology [Radio broadcast transcript]. NPR.

Vera, C. (2020, August 19). The weight of racial fetishization: I am not your porn tag. Quench.

VICE News. (2020, July 10). How Coronavirus is stoking racism against Asian people [Video]. YouTube.

Video: The Chinese Massacre: One of Los Angeles’ worst atrocities | Watch lost LA Online | PBS Video. (2017, October 17). [Video]. PBS.

Vittert, L., & Dolly, C. (2018, November 13). Measuring racial profiling: Why it’s hard to tell where police are treating minorities unfairly. The Conversation.

Voices remembering slavery: Freed people tell their stories | Digital Collections | Library of Congress. (n.d.). The Library of Congress Digital Collection.

Vox. (2014, August 19). The racism of the US justice system in 10 charts [Video]. YouTube.

Vox. (2015, September 3). How mandatory minimums helped drive mass incarceration [Video]. YouTube.

Vox. (2017, December 7). The US medical system is still haunted by slavery [Video]. YouTube.

Vox. (2020, June 30). A brief history of police impunity in Black deaths [Video]. YouTube.

Warren, P. Y., & Farrell, A. (2009). The Environmental Context of Racial Profiling. The Annals of the American Academy of Political and Social Science623, 52–63.

Waterstones. (2019, August 19). How to be an antiracist by Ibram X. Kendi [Video]. YouTube.

Waxman, O. B. (2017, July 25). How the public learned about the infamous Tuskegee syphilis study. Time.

Waxman, O. B. (2019, August 20). Slavery in America didn’t start in Jamestown in 1619. Time.

Weise, E. (2021, March 18). Anti-Asian hashtags soared after Donald Trump first tied COVID-19 to China on Twitter, study shows. USA TODAY.

What is an ally? (2019, January 10). Dictionary.Com.

WHO issues best practices for naming new human infectious diseases. (2015, May 8). World Health Organization.

Wildeman, C. (2012). Mass incarceration. Oxford Bibliographies Online Datasets.

Williams, M. T. (2011, December 27). Colorblind ideology is a form of racism. Psychology Today.

Williamson, V., & Gelfand, I. (2019, August 14). Trump and racism: What do the data say? Brookings.

Woods, J. (2017, January 12). 12 ways to be a white ally to black people. The Root.

Wun, C. (2021, March 1). Ignoring the history of Anti-Asian racism is another form of violence. ELLE.

Xenophobia. (2022). In Merriam-Webster.

Yan, H. (2018, May 11). This is why everyday racial profiling is so dangerous. CNN.

Yuan, K. (2020, August 5). Black employees say ‘Performative allyship’ is an unchecked problem in the office. Fortune.

Zhang, S. (2021, August 16). J. Marion Sims, the gynecologist who experimented on slaves. The Atlantic.

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