Skip to Main Content

Middlesex Campus Library

Middlesex HIMT 2380: Healthcare Stats & Data Analysis

Primary vs. Secondary Data

Primary Data: Data that has been generated by the researcher himself/herself, surveys, interviews, experiments, specially designed for understanding and solving the research problem at hand.

Secondary data: Using existing data generated by large government Institutions, healthcare facilities etc. as part of organizational record keeping. The data is then extracted from more varied datafiles.




Quantitative & Qualitative Research Methods

Quantitative Research: Data that can be measured, quantified.

Qualitative Research: Data collected that is not numerical, hence cannot be quantified. It measures other characteristics through interviews, observation and focused groups among a few methods.

Overview of Methods to Collect Information

The following table provides an overview of the major methods used for collecting data during evaluations.


Overall Purpose



questionnaires, surveys,
when need to quickly and/or easily get lots of information from people in a non threatening way -can complete anonymously
-inexpensive to administer
-easy to compare and analyze
-administer to many people
-can get lots of data
-many sample questionnaires already exist
-might not get careful feedback
-wording can bias client's responses
-are impersonal
-in surveys, may need sampling expert
- doesn't get full story
interviews when want to fully understand someone's impressions or experiences, or learn more about their answers to questionnaires -get full range and depth of information
-develops relationship with client
-can be flexible with client
-can take much time
-can be hard to analyze and compare
-can be costly
-interviewer can bias client's responses
documentation review when want impression of how program operates without interrupting the program; is from review of applications, finances, memos, minutes, etc. -get comprehensive and historical information
-doesn't interrupt program or client's routine in program
-information already exists
-few biases about information
-often takes much time
-info may be incomplete
-need to be quite clear about what looking for
-not flexible means to get data; data restricted to what already exists
observation to gather accurate information about how a program actually operates, particularly about processes -view operations of a program as they are actually occurring
-can adapt to events as they occur
-can be difficult to interpret seen behaviors
-can be complex to categorize observations
-can influence behaviors of program participants
-can be expensive
focus groups explore a topic in depth through group discussion, e.g., about reactions to an experience or suggestion, understanding common complaints, etc.; useful in evaluation and marketing -quickly and reliably get common impressions
-can be efficient way to get much range and depth of information in short time
- can convey key information about programs
-can be hard to analyze responses
-need good facilitator for safety and closure
-difficult to schedule 6-8 people together
case studies to fully understand or depict client's experiences in a program, and conduct comprehensive examination through cross comparison of cases -fully depicts client's experience in program input, process and results
-powerful means to portray program to outsiders
-usually quite time consuming to collect, organize and describe
-represents depth of information, rather than breadth